This year marks the 75th anniversary of the State Bar of Texas. To celebrate, we have put together a list of notable events, numbers, items, characters, images, and dates since 1939. In a state as grand as Texas, there was an overwhelming amount of data to sort through—which is why our anniversary coverage will last all year. On April 12, 1939, the State Bar Act was enacted. It was promptly signed into law by Gov. Wilbert Lee “Pappy” O’Daniel and implemented by the Texas Supreme Court. The State Bar of Texas is the 2nd largest (unified) bar in the United States. Angus G. Wynne was the first president of the State Bar of Texas and held office from 1939 to 1940. In the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court case Hernandez v. Texas, the court found it was a denial of equal protection to try a defendant before a jury from which all persons of his or her race or color were purposefully excluded. Lisa M. Tatum is the first African American to serve as president of the State Bar of Texas. The San Antonio resident took office in June 2013. Only one woman has sworn in a president of the United States. On that fateful day in November 1963, Judge Sarah T. Hughes administered the oath of office to Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson aboard Air Force One. In 1975, the Law-Related Educat ion Department was founded to teach children about the rule of law, the justice system, and the legal profession. During 2012-2013, some 7,300 teachers were trained using LRE materials. During 2012-2013, one out of every 13 attorneys was board certified. 102 Age of the oldest living State Bar of Texas member, who was licensed in 1941. 23 Age of the youngest member, who received his license in November 2013. Built in 1861, the Cass County Courthouse is the only continuously functioning antebellum courthouse in Texas. Leon Jaworski, the renowned Houston attorney who, in 1925, was the youngest lawyer to be admitted to the bar at the age of 20, was elected as president of the State Bar of Texas in 1962. He went on to become president of the American Bar Association in 1971 and the second special prosecutor of the Watergate scandal. During his lifetime, Jaworski prosecuted war criminals after World War II, represented Lyndon Baines Johnson, and received honorary law degrees from 11 universities. Former Texas Supreme Court Chief Justice Jack Pope celebrated his 100th birthday in 2013, making him the oldest living former state chief justice in the country. 3,000 Approximate number of active members in 1939. 94,500 Approximate number of active members in 2013. This pamphlet, produced by the State Bar, was distributed to the public in 1956. Inside is a guide to navigating the scene after an accident, including space to write details of the incident— a handy reference to keep in the glove box. James A. Baker III is known around the world as an international statesman. A senior partner in his family’s firm, Baker Botts, he served as secretary of state under President George H.W. Bush and as secretary of the treasury under President Ronald Reagan. The first bar card of the unified State Bar of Texas—which belonged to Jeff D. Stinson, the Dallas lawyer who co-sponsored the State Bar Act in the Texas House—was signed on June 1, 1939. The Texas Bar Foundation, which was founded in 1965, is the largest charitably funded bar foundation in the nation. 1:455 Ratio of attorneys to Texas population in 1980. 1:315 Ratio of attorneys to Texas population during 2012-2013. The Cloak Room, an underground bar near the Capitol grounds in Austin, is said to have been the place where political deals were done. The cave-like space has played host to many a politician, lawyer, clerk, student, history buff, and the like since it opened in the 1970s. Thousands of new Texas lawyers celebrate with friends, family, and former classmates at the Erwin Center in Austin, where they are inducted into the State Bar of Texas. Sweatt v. Painter challenged the rejection of Heman Marion Sweatt, who was African-American, from admission to the University of Texas School of Law. The court ruled in favor of Sweatt, noting that a separate but equal law school would leave him at a disadvantage. Percy Foreman, the famed criminal defense lawyer from Houston who was best known for defending Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassin, was reported to have received only one death penalty sentence out of the 1,500 death penalty cases he took on during his legal career. Foreman, who mentored renowned Texas attorneys Racehorse Haynes and Dick DeGuerin, was known for his flamboyant courtroom etiquette and loyalty to his clients. 3 The number of name changes that TYLA has seen. Known as the Texas Junior Bar Association before the State Bar’s founding, the group became the State Junior Bar of Texas in 1940, and finally, the Texas Young Lawyers Association in 1977. 5 Number of Texas lawyers who have served as president of the American Bar Association (R.E.L. Saner, David A. Simmons, Robert G. Storey, Leon Jaworski, and Morris Harrell). The Commission for Lawyer Discipline was created in 1991 by an order of the Texas Supreme Court to address the need for consistency in disciplinary proceedings. A sampling of annual meeting logos found in advertisements and corresponding materials. William Carssow, who co-sponsored the State Bar Act in the Texas House, served as the first executive secretary of the bar. To read a 2007 interview with Carssow, go to texasbar.com/carssoworalhistory. Texas attorneys and the South Western Reporter go hand in hand. In 1997, LexisNexis debuted the first Web-based service for U.S. legal professionals. A groundbreaking leader in many ways, Barbara Jordan is perhaps best known for being the first African American elected to the Texas Senate. 88,498 Number of TexasBar CLE online classroom participants during 2012-2013. Some original offices of the State Bar were located in the Littlefield Building in Austin. This pamphlet, seeking funds for a new building (dedicated as the Texas Law Center on July 4, 1976), helped spread the word. Michael Morton was wrongly convicted of murdering his wife—and served nearly 25 years in prison for it. After investigators discovered misuse of evidence in the case, and following further clearing through DNA testing, Morton was released in 2011. The Michael Morton Act, signed into law in 2013, now requires prosecutors in criminal cases to share all evidence with defense attorneys. A select number of gavels were crafted out of the historic oak tree in Marshall where Gen. Sam Houston delivered a speech pronouncing his commitment to the Union during his 1857 gubernatorial campaign. Although Hatton W. Sumners, an early leader in Texas law, died in 1962, his Hatton W. Sumners Foundation continues to support the study and teaching of the science of self-government, including some State Bar education efforts. A conference room in the Texas Law Center carries his name. On Nov. 18, 2013, David Ray Olivas of Flower Mound sent a congratulatory message to his fellow new attorney inductees via blog post. At the time, he was in Mazar-e-Sharif, in the Balkh province of northern Afghanistan, where he had been stationed for a while—and where he studied for the bar exam. To read more about his story and why he decided to become an attorney, go to texasbar.com/davidolivas. From 1980 to 2008, U.S. District Judge Jerry Buchmeyer entertained lawyers with his “et cetera” column, which brought real courtroom humor to the pages of the Texas Bar Journal. 15 The number of hours it takes to complete the Texas bar exam, which is one of the longer bar exams in the country. President Ronald Reagan addressed a crowd of attorneys during the 1984 State Bar Convention in San Antonio. On May 15, 1939, the Texas Legislature passed House Bill 108 and enacted the Rules of Practice Act giving the Supreme Court “full rulemaking power in the practice and procedure in civil actions.” Thomas Campbell Clark, a lawyer from Dallas, was the first Texan to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court. He was nominated to the bench by President Harry S. Truman and confirmed by the Senate in 1949. Produced by the State Bar Public Affairs Committee and broadcast in South and Central Texas during the 1970s, the Ask a Lawyer TV show typically received more than 70 calls from viewers with pressing legal questions during its 30-minute airtime. Bryan Garner, the Texas lawyer who once was called “America’s foremost authority on language and the law” by the Barrister magazine, has written dozens of legal prose guides, as well as Making Your Case: The Art of Persuading Judges and Reading Law: The Interpretation of Legal Texts, both of which he co-authored with U.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia. In the early 1990s, Garner served as chair of the State Bar of Texas Plain-Language Committee. Peregrinus, the beloved mascot of the University of Texas School of Law—who is “part bird, part mammal, and completely imaginary”—is said to embody several important legal ideals. During 2012-2013, more than 5,600 ethics helpline calls were received. Gib Walton’s December 2007 President’s Opinion “Lawyers in Black Suits,” which discussed the challenges faced by lawyers in Pakistan, was so powerful that the American Bar Association included it among a list of effective bar president letters. Since 2010, nearly 3,000 attorneys have provided pro bono legal services to more than 10,000 veterans. The State Bar of Texas was the first bar association in the country to create a separate division for paralegals. 10 Number of law schools in Texas. In the fall of 2014, UNT Dallas College of Law is slated to seat its first class. The State Bar of Texas seal was mandated in the first Rules of Conduct for the State Bar of Texas, which was passed in 1940. The seal, which closely resembles the seal of the state of Texas, has remained largely unchanged for more than 70 years, except for a few small tweaks to its font. On Oct. 11, 1972, a 26-year-old Austin attorney named Sarah Weddington argued for legalized abortion before the United States Supreme Court. The court’s decision (a vote of 7-2) in that landmark case—Roe v. Wade—made abortion legal in all 50 states. Weddington later served three terms in the Texas House of Representatives, became the first woman general counsel of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and worked at the White House under President Jimmy Carter. At the end of 2013, there were 29,617 female members of the State Bar of Texas, an increase from 19,242in 2001. Houston defense attorney Dick DeGuerin, a protégé of Percy Foreman, has represented some of the state’s most well-known figures, including Kay Bailey Hutchison, David Koresh, Tom DeLay, Billy Joe Shaver, Robert Durst, and R. Allen Stanford. Delgado v. Bastrop ISD, a 1949 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals case, successfully challenged the practice of segregating Mexican American students on campuses separate from white students in Texas public schools. In March 2013, the Texas Supreme Court and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals reaffirmed the Texas Lawyer’s Creed, a mandate for professionalism. Louise Raggio, a Dallas lawyer who had many firsts in her distinguished career—including being the first female assistant district attorney of Dallas County and the first woman to be a State Bar director—drafted and led the movement for the Marital Property Act of 1967, which enabled women to own property, take out a bank loan, and start a business without the consent of their husbands. During the April 2013 Texas Access to Justice Commission’s Champions of Justice Gala, more than $341,000 was raised to assist efforts for veterans’ legal services initiatives. 109,905 The number of hours of pro bono work reported online by Texas lawyers during 2012-2013. On Nov. 1, 2013, the State Bar of Texas launched the Texas Bar Private Insurance Exchange, a multi-carrier private exchange exclusively designed for its members and their staff and dependents. On July 22, 2008, the State Bar of Texas joined Facebook and published its first post, a call for entries for the 2008 YouTube contest “Ideals That Unite Us.” In 2012, the State Bar of Texas Lawyer Referral and Information Service received 66,299 calls and made 61,830 referrals. 49 The number of Texas inmates exonerated based on DNA evidence, due in part to the work of the lawyer-based Innocence Project of Texas. Attorney and Col. Robert G. Storey of Dallas assisted with investigation and prosecution during the Nuremberg Trials. He was responsible for assembling documentary evidence and supervising the preparation of cases against war criminals in Bulgaria who committed atrocities against U.S. prisoners of war. Approximately 300 judges and many Texas lawyers—including the second State Bar president, Few Brewster, and the first female judge in Travis County, Mary Pearl Hall Williams—are buried at the Texas State Cemetery in Austin. In 1996, Hopwood v. Texas prohibited the use of affirmative action in Texas public universities and ushered in the top 10 percent rule. The U.S. Supreme Court overturned the case in 2003 through Grutter v. Bollinger. The Sunset Advisory Commission first reviewed the State Bar in 1978 for the 66th Legislature convening in 1979. Gadgets such as telephones, personal computers, and fax machines have improved efficiencies at law practices over the years, but nothing has been more revolutionary than the iPad, which allows lawyers to research case law on the fly. The first tweet from the official State Bar of Texas Twitter account was posted on July 29, 2009. The tweet advertised the Dallas Bar Association Law Jam 2, a benefit concert by lawyer-musicians. According to a 1939 Texas Bar Journal article on a Texas Senate resolution to preserve the Jersey Lilly, the saloon and “court” of infamous self-appointed Judge Roy Bean, the judge’s “memory will be kept alive, not because of his contributions to the science of jurisprudence, but because he was a picturesque figure in the romantic history of the state.” $2 Minimum price of a room at the Driskill Hotel during the bar’s 1939 Annual Convention in Austin. 8,043 Number of State Bar Twitter followers as of Dec. 16, 2013. Legendary Texas criminal defense attorney Richard “Racehorse” Haynes is known for his courtroom theatrics, highprofile cases, and winning record. He’s even had a song written about him. 421 The number of attendees at the 2013 Texas Minority Counsel Program in Las Colinas. The Texas Supreme Court decided in Edgewood ISD v. Kirby that Texas’s school finance system, which was based on property taxes that varied widely from district to district, was a violation of the state’s constitution. The Texas Lawyers’ Assistance Program, which was created in 1984 to help attorneys with alcoholism, drug addiction, and other mental health issues, has nearly 600 volunteers throughout the state. 28,324 Number of State Bar Facebook “likes” as of Dec. 16, 2013.
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