By Dayle Hayes, MS, RD 2014-10-28 16:54:06
A look at menu requirements, operational realities and reliable resources. Most school nutrition professionals are passionate advocates for school breakfast, because they know the realities of childhood food insecurity. They know that a morning meal is essential, because you cannot teach a hungry child—and because breakfast helps support all aspects of student health and wellness. They often go to great lengths to start and expand breakfast programs in their schools and districts. But rolling out breakfast this school year has been a tough test for some, a serious challenge for others and a financial balancing act for nearly every operation participating in the federal School Breakfast Program (SBP). The realities of “School Breakfast 2014” vary from district to district for many reasons, including geographic location, food supply chains, student demographics and levels of food insecurity. While many breakfast programs enjoy strong support in their communities, some contend with administrators who actively push back against efforts to expand service. While some operations easily access local products (such as local whole-grain grits), others are struggling to procure the quantities of fruit required to meet the new regulations. While some district operations have the resources necessary to store and prep the breakfast items that they want to serve, others simply do not have the storage space or basic equipment they need. ADDRESSING THE REQUIREMENTS As most School Nutrition readers know by now, two SBP requirements went into effect at the start of this school year: • All grains must be whole grain-rich in both the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the SBP beginning July 1, 2014 (SY 2014-15). • The fruit quantity requirement for the SBP (5 cups/week and a minimum of 1 cup/day) is effective July 1, 2014 (SY 2014-2015). • SN interviewed school nutrition directors from all parts of the country and in districts of various sizes and demographics in an attempt to paint a School Breakfast 2014 picture. No one hesitated to share triumphs, but many asked to remain anonymous in regard to the trials they continue to face. Let’s take a look at some of the highs and lows. The Whole (Grain-rich) Truth In general, the requirement that all grains served in the SBP must be whole grain-rich seems to be less problematic than the requirement for added fruit. The food industry should be credited for stepping up to the research and development (R&D) challenge and launching many new kid-friendly, whole grain-rich products for both breakfast and lunch. School menu planners now have a wide variety of options for whole grain-rich hot and cold cereals, muffins, cinnamon rolls, pancakes, flatbreads and other products. Attendees of SNA’s Annual National Conference (ANC) and state association food shows can attest to this fact. Robert Lewis, PhD, SNS, director of nutrition services, El Monte City (Calif.) School District is just one director who has found that shows now feature “an overwhelming amount of healthy foods to choose from.” The whole grain-rich R&D process also has ramped up in many school kitchens. According to Bibb County (Ga.) School District Child Nutrition Director Cleta Long, EdD, SNS, it took plenty of trial-and-error attempts to get her operation’s scratchprepared whole grain-rich biscuit “just right” for students. “It always takes time to develop a new recipe,” Long notes. “You need all the right ingredients—and you can’t always compare it to the original one.” There are a few whole grain-rich items that still appear on the wish lists of many directors, including “really good” whole-grain tortillas, biscuits, bagels and, in the South, grits. But, as they always do, school nutrition professionals are working their procurement and preparation “magic” to find and serve meals that meet the new federal standards— and the acceptability standards of their often-picky customers. Breakfast must be eaten to provide its well-known academic and health benefits: It’s only nutrition when they actually eat or drink it! In Burke County, Ga., School Nutrition Director Donna Martin, EdS, RD, LD, SNS, has solved the grits dilemma by purchasing locally grown and milled whole-grain products—and making some preparation adjustments. “Whole-grain grits do take longer to cook, but they are delicious,” says Martin, noting that cheese grits are still one of her program’s mostpopular breakfast items. She does acknowledge that the local product is more expensive, however, which is a common refrain about many of the products schools find they must menu in order to be compliant. Much farther north, in Oyster River, N.H., Child Nutrition Director Doris Demers reports that, for the most part, industry has been able to provide what she needs—with one exception. “The biggest issue was bagels, because the whole-wheat bagels didn’t come in the flavors that our high school customers prefer,” she recounts. “We checked local vendors and got a local bagelry to make a smaller, whole wheat version in several flavors to keep the bagel love alive!” Produce Problems The challenges presented by the new requirement of one cup of fruit at all grade levels have been less about product formulations and all about availability, cost and waste. A significant majority of nutrition directors that spoke to SN have some misgivings about the portion size of the fruit requirement, especially for the younger grades. While most directors prefer serving fresh fruit—locally sourced when possible—they have found that “when possible” is an increasing challenge, and not just for locally sourced but any fresh fruit. Increasingly, they find themselves turning to juice, canned and dried fruit options. If you do the math, it’s not surprising that the availability of fresh fruit might be a problem, especially in smaller, more rural communities with fewer distribution options. By doubling the basic breakfast fruit requirement from 1⁄2 cup to 1 cup, the school foodservice distribution system could need as many as 13 million more servings of fruit per day this year. Several directors report that they are experiencing availability problems even with canned fruit. When demand is high and supply is limited, prices skyrocket. Every director contacted for this article mentioned the increased food—and labor—costs of the new fruit requirement. The mandate came without any additional reimbursement, and the federal projection of a 27-cent total cost increase for breakfast seems a significant underestimate. While there is always wide regional variation in produce prices, directors tell SN that they are paying between 25 and 40 cents more just for the additional fruit; this doesn’t take into account price increases for other meal components. Two directors note that, despite careful and detailed financial management, their school meals operations likely will run in the red for the first time in more than a dozen years. As food costs have risen, waste has become a major and nearly universal concern. No one wants to see expensive produce in garbage cans during the best of times; it is especially painful when school nutrition budgets are as tight as they are this year. Linette Dodson, PhD, RD, SNS, director of school nutrition, Carrollton City (Ga.) Schools, and many others underscore the critical importance of applying an offer-versus-serve (OVS) approach to reduce food waste: “Where we have OVS, fruit waste has not increased, but in our serve-only schools, PreK-3, [plate waste has risen].” Wesley Delbridge, RD, food and nutrition director, Chandler (Ariz.) Unified School District, believes that consistent OVS messaging is essential to reducing food waste. “Offer two half-cup servings so students must simply take one to keep the message consistent from breakfast to lunch,” Delbridge advises, noting that emphasizing one (or more) fruit and veggie at every meal is a simple, actionable message that kids and staff can understand. Lack of time to eat at breakfast also can contribute to food waste. In the Maplewood-Richmond Heights (Mo.) School District, Chef Robert Rusan puts it very simply: “It’s the difference between chewing and gobbling.” Fruit juice may be easier to consume quickly than a banana, but drinking 4 ounces of juice plus 8 ounces of milk takes time, too. Even those administrators who support school breakfast may not understand the proper amount of time students need to eat and enjoy the mandatory breakfast components. Jenny Montague, MS, RDN, foodservice director for Kalispell (Mont.) Public Schools outlines multiple factors that make the increased fruit requirement a continual balancing act. “Serving slices or wedges helps to reduce waste, but more staff time is needed for prep,” she notes. “If we have good fruit, [students] will eat it, but we don’t always get the quality we want. Offering a variety of fruit on a regular basis—canned peaches, thawed berries, fresh bananas and apples—is great, but that costs more, too.” Smoothies have proven an effective menu item to increase fruit consumption, as well as breakfast participation, but they also require significant additional labor and equipment. ACKNOWLEDGING THE REALITIES… The challenges of implementing the new requirements for breakfast are very real. The gradual rollout of the 2010 Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act has meant substantial changes for school nutrition operations every year. Changing menus, types of service and children’s eating habits can be challenging under the best of circumstances. It has been made even more difficult by the unrelenting, often-intense media scrutiny of school meals. Every school nutrition program deserves credit for balancing so many requirements that lead to well-nourished students who are ready to learn. Their leadership in shaping healthier habits— often unsupported outside of school—is not given sufficient due, especially given a number of operational “truths.” Change takes time. The switch to all whole grain-rich breakfast items has been smoother, because the food industry has had time to create new products and new recipes. Acceptance of changes in favorite foods, like grits and bagels, takes time, too. Change requires training. Even changes that may look simple on paper, like OVS at breakfast, require ongoing education of students, teachers and foodservice staff. New products and equipment, like those for making large numbers of fruit smoothies, necessitate staff training time. Directors and managers also need help in evaluating products to ensure that they meet new standards. Change necessitates creativity. To successfully implement the 2014 breakfast meal pattern with current reimbursement rates, school nutrition professionals must be financial wizards, procurement masters and nutrition magicians. They have to understand customer and community expectations, farm to school programs and grant application processes. The most successful programs leverage every possible resource in incredibly creative ways—every week of the year. …AND REACHING FOR RESOURCES There is a bonanza of school breakfast resources—if directors and managers can find the time to apply them. A director in New England summarized it this way: “All of these changes place a huge burden on directors of small districts, where we wear many hats. Rewriting recipes and menus, searching for new foods, retraining staff…it all takes a toll when you are ‘one deep’ in your job. It can be overwhelming and leave little time for creativity and marketing, which are also very important parts of the job.” Here are a few of the best sites for breakfast resources: • The School Nutrition Foundation (SNF) Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC) Resource Center (http://docs.schoolnutrition.org/SNF/BIC) is a one-stop shop for busy directors and managers who want to use out-of-the-cafeteria service models. • Share Our Strength’s No Kid Hungry initiative also has an excellent clearinghouse of School Breakfast resources on its Center for Best Practices (http://bestpractices.nokidhungry.org/school-breakfast) site. • Search the extensive National Foodservice Management Institute database (www.nfsmi.org) for breakfast training materials and other resources. • If you want some new recipes, the National Dairy Council (http://tinyurl.com/ndcbrkfstrecipes) is a delicious place to start. • Check out the Let’s Prepare Healthy School Breakfast toolkit from Project Bread (http://tinyurl.com/ProjectBreadbrkfstrecipes) for menus and recipes. Grants to support school breakfast expansion have been readily available from a wide variety of public and private organizations and corporations for several years. If you need additional equipment or support for breakfast programs, start by checking with your state department of child nutrition and with your local dairy council for current grant availability. LOOKING TO TOMORROW The benefits of school breakfast are well-known and school nutrition professionals are doing whatever they can to make the new requirements work. The challenges are significant, but they have not yet become real impediments to feeding hungry students. So, let’s conclude on a hopeful note, recognizing the eternal creativity of school nutrition operators and their allies and looking forward to new solutions and strategies for school breakfast. As this issue was heading to press, School Nutrition got a preview of some exciting school breakfast menu innovations that could be coming to cafeteria trays in the next year or two. In October, the National Dairy Council brought together school nutrition professionals, food manufacturers and chefs for a Breakfast Innovation Summit to brainstorm menu ideas to send through an R&D process. Following are just a few of the ideas that capitalize on hot trends in the commercial world and have made it to the test-kitchen phase: • Cheesy churro dipper with savory yogurt • Spicy pear empanada with yogurt cup • Spinach and black bean flatbread • Harvest apple and cheddar flatbread • Blueberry mozzarella muffin • Pineapple upside down muffin with dried cranberries • Mac-n-cheese with turkey muffin • Fiesta brown rice bowl with spicy sausage crumbles and black beans • Savory togurt shaker breakfast salad with quinoa, eggs and spinach Stay tuned to see if any of these innovations come your way in the future. You may have seen them here first! Dayle Hayes is a nutrition consultant and speaker based in Billings, Mont. She also maintains the School Meals That Rock Facebook page (www.facebook.com/SchoolMealsThatRock). You can reach her at EatWellatSchool@gmail.com. KITCHEN WISDOM SAYS . . . • This is a very straight-forward recipe that is easy to follow and execute. • This was a fairly well-accepted item. We tried it with reduced-fat cheddar cheese, instead of mozzarella, which the students liked. Older students suggested pepperjack cheese. • This recipe is a good option for a breakfast sandwich. • Depending on the product, the mini bagels may be too small to credit for the grain; check to be certain. An alternative is to use a standard whole-grain bagel that is on the smallish side, so that the sausage doesn’t get lost and the cheese remains balanced. TURKEY SAUSAGE BREAKFAST SLIDERS YIELD: 24 servings* INGREDIENTS Turkey sausage patties, fully cooked— 24 1 1⁄4-oz. patties Pan-release spray—as needed Mini bagels, whole-grain—24 Mozzarella cheese, shredded, low-moisture, part-skim—6 ozs. DIRECTIONS 1. Preheat the oven to 375°F. 2. Place the frozen turkey sausage patties on a sheet pan (do not line the pan with parchment paper). Cook for 12-14 minutes or until the sausage reaches an internal temperature of 165°F. 3. While the sausage is cooking, spray another sheet pan lightly with pan-release spray. 4. Cut the bagels in half (if not pre-sliced). Place each half on a sheet pan with the cut side up. Top each bagel half with a teaspoon of mozzarella. 5. Place the cheese-topped bagel halves in the oven until they are heated through and the cheese has melted. 6. Place the hot sausage patty on one half of the bagel and then top with the other half. 7. Serve immediately or wrap each bagel slider in foil or parchment paper and keep warm until serving. Photo & recipe: Sara Lee Foodservice, www.saraleefoodservice.com *Notes: If serving as part of the reimbursable meal, adjust the serving size as necessary to meet current meal pattern requirements. If this recipe passes the test with a small group of students, conduct a nutrient analysis. KITCHEN WISDOM SAYS . . . • Adding a little lowfat shredded cheddar cheese might help with acceptability in geographic areas where rice and beans are not routinely eaten for breakfast. • This recipe might benefit from a flavor boost; an option could be to serve it with salsa, in addition to the sour cream, especially since the item is called a dipper. • This item might be perceived by some students as more of a lunch item, because of the seasonings, but that could be remedied through marketing. • Removing the eggs would make this recipe a great lunch item. SOUTHWEST BREAKFAST TACO DIPPERS YIELD: 192 servings (Grades K-5); 48 servings (Grades 6-12) PER SERVING (Grades K-5): 220 cal., 11 g pro., 28 g carb., 3 g fiber, 7 g fat, 2 g sat. fat, 80 mg chol., 490 mg sod. PER SERVING (Grades 6-8): 260 cal., 12 g pro., 35 g carb., 4 g fiber, 8 g fat, 3 g sat. fat, 85 mg chol., 570 mg sod. PER SERVING (Grades 9-12): 270 cal., 14 g pro., 36 g carb., 4 g fiber, 8 g fat, 3 g sat. fat, 90 mg chol., 610 mg sod. INGREDIENTS (Grades K-5) Taco-flavored pinto beans and brown rice mixture*—24.7 ozs. Tortillas, whole-grain, 8-in.—192 Chicken taco meat—6 lbs. Liquid whole eggs—3 qts. Southwest seasoning blend, sodium-free—1⁄4 cup Sour cream, non-fat—192 1-oz. portions INGREDIENTS (Grades 6-12) Taco-flavored pinto beans and brown rice mixture*—24.7 ozs. Tortillas, whole-grain, 8-in.—48 Chicken taco meat—1 1⁄2 lbs. (for Grades 6-8); 2 1/4 lbs. (for Grades 9-12) Liquid whole eggs—3 cups Southwest seasoning blend, sodium-free—1 Tbsp. Sour cream, non-fat—48 1-oz. portions DIRECTIONS 1. Prepare the beans and rice mixture according to the package directions. When finished, transfer the mixture to a food-safe container, cover and hold in a hot holding unit above 135°F until ready for assembly. 2. Place the tortillas in a hot holding unit above 135°F for 30 minutes prior to use so they are warm and pliable. 3. Place the (thawed) chicken taco meat in a steamer or steam-jacketed kettle over low heat until it reaches 165°F. Transfer the chicken to a steamtable pan and hold covered in a hot holding unit above 135°F until ready for assembly. 4. Cook the eggs according to the manufacturer’s directions. Season the eggs with the Southwest seasoning. Transfer the cooked eggs to a food-safe container, cover and hold in a hot holding unit above 135°F until ready for assembly. 5. To assemble each serving for Grades K-5: Lay the tortillas on a sanitized work surface. Place 2 Tbsps. of the rice mixture in the middle of each tortilla. Evenly arrange 1⁄2 oz. of taco meat and 1 Tbsp. of the eggs on top of the rice. 6. To assemble each serving for Grades 6-8: Lay the tortillas on a sanitized work surface. Place 1⁄4 cup of the rice mixture (#16 scoop) in the middle of each tortilla. Evenly arrange 1⁄2 oz. of taco meat and 1 Tbsp. of the eggs on top of the rice. 7. To assemble each serving for Grades 9-12: Lay the tortillas on a sanitized work surface. Place 1⁄4 cup of the rice mixture (#16 scoop) in the middle of each tortilla. Evenly arrange 3⁄4 oz. of taco meat and 1 Tbsp. of the eggs on top of the rice. 8. Roll each tortilla up burrito-style, closing both ends, and transfer the built breakfast dippers to a sheet pan (lined with baking paper) placed 1⁄2 in. apart. 9. Bake the pan of breakfast dippers in a preheated 350°F convection oven for 5-6 minutes, or until the tortillas are just beginning to crisp and the internal temperature of the dippers is 165°F. Hold the finished dippers uncovered on a sheet pan or steamtable pan, in a hot holding unit above 135°F, until ready to serve. 10. Serve each dipper with one 1-oz. portion of sour cream. Photo, recipe & recipe analysis: Uncle Ben’s, www.marsfoodservices.com *Notes: UNCLE BEN’s Taco Flavored Pinto Beans & Brown Rice (40665) may be used for this recipe, if desired. According to the recipe source, each portion provides the following equivalents: Meat/meat alternate: 3⁄4 oz. (Grades K-5, 6-8); 1 oz. (Grades 9-12) Grains: 1 1⁄2 ozs. (Grades K-5); 1 3⁄4 ozs. (Grades 6-8, 9-12) KITCHEN WISDOM SAYS . . . • This recipe made a denser pancake, and kids were not as sure about the oatmeal, so I would use more whole-wheat flour and reduce the oatmeal in the recipe— maybe even try it with added blueberries. Further recipe testing would be helpful to find the most acceptable pancake consistency. • The instructions are accurate and easy to follow, and this clever recipe yielded a relatively fluffy pancake that is loaded with whole grains. • Be aware that the fluffiness decreases as the pancake sits. • The idea to let the batter rest to absorb more of the liquid is brilliant. But I would suggest folding the batter a little after the 15-minute rest period to be sure it is mixed evenly. • The flavor is very subtle. I would double the cinnamon and perhaps add a little vanilla extract. • Serving the pancake with a fresh fruit compote not only would add to the flavor profile but could be credited as a 1⁄2 cup fruit requirement, and the fruit compote would be a healthier option than the syrup. • This recipe is a great way to meet the grain requirement and overall would be worth testing with students. OATMEAL PANCAKES YIELD: 50 servings (1 oz. pancake and 1 Tbsp. maple syrup) PER SERVING: 187 cal., 5 g pro., 27 g carb., 2 g fiber, 6 g fat, 1 g sat. fat, 31 mg chol., 540 mg sod., 1 mg iron, 81 mg ca. INGREDIENTS Oats, rolled—2 qts., divided Flour, whole-wheat—2 cups Sugar, granulated—2 1⁄2 Tbsps. Baking powder—1 Tbsp., 2 tsps. Cinnamon, ground—1 Tbsp., 1 tsp. Salt—4 tsps. Baking soda—1 Tbsp. Eggs, large—8 Buttermilk—2 qts. Vegetable oil—1 cup Pan-release spray—as needed Maple syrup—3 cups, 2 Tbsps. DIRECTIONS 1. Grind 1 qt., 2 cups of the rolled oats in a food processor fitted with a steel blade for 1-2 minutes or until the mixture resembles coarse flour. Ensure that there are no or few unground oats to prevent an overly coarse texture. 2. Whisk together the ground oats, the remaining whole oats, plus the flour, sugar, baking powder, cinnamon, salt and baking soda in a large bowl. Set aside. 3. Beat the eggs in a separate large bowl until they are well blended. Whisk in the buttermilk and oil; mix thoroughly. 4. Fold the wet ingredients into the bowl of dry ingredients and mix until the batter looks lumpy and wet. Do not overmix. There should be some lumps, but they should be 1⁄2-in. or less. Let the batter rest for 15 minutes. The batter will look less wet as it sits and as the oats absorb more of the moisture. 5. Pre-heat the griddle to a medium-low temperature. Ensure the griddle is hot enough by sprinkling a few drops of water that should instantly bubble up and steam off. 6. When the griddle is ready, coat liberally with pan-release spray and make a test pancake using a 2-oz. ladle. Flip the pancake when the top side begins to bubble and the edges look dry, after 1-2 minutes. Cook until the other side is brown and the inside is fully cooked, about 1 minute more. If your test pancake sticks to the griddle, increase the heat slightly and use more pan-release spray. If the pancake burns, reduce the heat. Cook the pancakes as you did the test pancake until all of the batter is used, adjusting the heat as necessary. 7. Serve each 1-oz. pancake with 1 Tbsp. maple syrup. Recipe & recipe analysis: New School Cuisine: Nutritious and Seasonal Recipes for School Cooks by School Cooks, http://tinyurl.com/newschoolcuisine *Notes: If preparing this recipe ahead of time, mix the dry ingredients and store them in an airtight container for up to three days. Mix the wet ingredients and refrigerate them in an airtight container for up to one day. According to the recipe source, each serving provides 1 oz. equivalent whole grain-rich grain. HASH BROWN MUFFINS YIELD: 95-100 4-oz. muffins PER SERVING: 130 cal., 14 g pro., 9 g carb., 1 g fiber, 4 g fat, 1 g sat. fat, 30 mg chol., 240 mg sod. INGREDIENTS Pan-release spray—as needed Hash brown potatoes, dehydrated mix—2.125 lbs. Whole egg substitute—23 cups Turkey, ground, 93% lean, cooked—8 lbs. Bell peppers, red or orange—2 cups Bell peppers, green—2 cups Cheddar cheese, sharp, reduced-fat, shredded—2 cups DIRECTIONS 1. Dice the orange or red bell peppers and the green bell peppers. Rehydrate the hash brown potatoes per the package instructions. 2. Preheat the oven to 400°F. 3. Lightly spray 4-oz. muffin tins with pan-release spray. 4. In a bowl, combine the hash brown potatoes, egg substitute, cooked ground turkey, diced peppers and cheese. 5. Fill each 4-oz. muffin tin with 1⁄2 cup of the mixture. Do not use muffin cups or inserts. 6. Cook for 15-18 minutes or until the muffins are golden brown on top. 7. Let cool before serving. Recipe & recipe analysis: Idahoan, www.idahoanfoodservice.com *Note: If serving as part of the reimbursable meal, adjust the serving size as necessary to meet current meal pattern requirements. PEACHES ‘N CREAM WAFFLE DUNKERS YIELD: 50 servings PER SERVING: 366 cal., 12 g pro., 66 g carb., 6 g fiber, 7 g fat, 1 g sat. fat, 22 mg chol., 396 mg sod., 2 mg iron, 392 mg ca. INGREDIENTS Cream cheese, fat-free, softened—50 ozs. or 6 1⁄4 cups Yogurt, lowfat, vanilla flavor*—200 ozs. or 25 cups Peaches, canned, drained*—200 ozs. or 25 cups Pan-release spray—as needed Waffle sticks, whole-grain, prepared*—100 Cinnamon-sugar, 50-50 blend—15 ozs. or 2 2⁄3 cups DIRECTIONS 1. In a food processor or mixer, whip the cream cheese. Add in the yogurt and half of the peaches (reserve the other half). Blend until the mixture is smooth. Refrigerate until service. 2. Coat each side of the prepared waffle sticks with the pan-release spray, then place them on a sheet pan. 3. Dust both sides of the waffle sticks with the cinnamon-sugar blend. 4. Bake the waffle sticks at 350°F for 7 minutes in a conventional oven, or at 325°F for 5 minutes in a convection oven. 5. For each serving: On top of two waffle sticks, place 1⁄2 cup of the peaches and cream cheese mixture topped with 1⁄4 cup of the reserved diced peaches. Photo, recipe & recipe analysis: National Dairy Council, www.nationaldairycouncil.org *Notes: According to the recipe source, one serving provides 1 dairy meat/meat alternate, 1.5 grain and 1⁄2 cup fruit. For variety, other canned fruits may be used, such as pears, Mandarin oranges, fruit cocktail or pineapple. Fruit purées, such as applesauce, fruit-flavored applesauce or pear sauce, may be mixed into the yogurt in place of the canned fruit in equal amounts. Greek yogurt can be substituted for regular yogurt. Mini pancakes, mini waffles or French toast sticks can be substituted for the waffle sticks. BONUS WEB CONTENT Need more best bets for breakfast? This month’s onlineexclusive content includes with breakfast-in-the-classroom reflections from a school nutrition director in the Pacific Northwest. To access these and other extras, visit www.schoolnutrition.org/snmagazinebonuscontent. Recipes obtained from outside sources and published in School Nutrition have not been tested by the magazine or SNA in a school foodservice setting, except for certain “Kitchen Wisdom” selections, which are evaluated by a volunteer pool of operators. When available, nutrient analyses are provided by the recipe source. Required ingredients, preparation steps and nutrient content make some recipes more appropriate for catering applications or adult meals. Readers are encouraged to test recipes and calculate their own nutrition analyses and meal patterns before adding a recipe to school menus. In addition, SN recognizes that individual schools use varying documentation methods and preparation steps to comply with HACCP principles; we encourage you to add your own HACCP steps to these recipes.
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