School Nutrition Association December 2014 : Page 44
BREAKFAST BREAD PUDDING YIELD: 48 servings PER SERVING: 282 cal., 10 g pro., 48 g carb., 5 g fi ber, 7 g fat, 2 g sat. fat, 78 mg chol., 298 mg sod. INGREDIENTS Pan release spray—as needed Dry bread cubes or crumbs—2 gals. Milk, lowfat (2%)—1 gal. Eggs—16 Brown sugar—2 1 ⁄ 2 cups Vanilla extract—2 Tbsps. Salt—2 tsps. Pears, diced, canned—3 qts. Cinnamon—1 tsp. Granola—2 qts. DIRECTIONS 1. Drain the pears. Set aside. 2. Heat the oven to 350°F. 3. Pour 1 gal. of the bread crumbs or cubes into each of two spray-coated 12x20x2-in. pans. Set aside. 4. In a bowl, mix the milk, eggs, brown sugar, vanilla extract and salt; pour equal amounts of the mixture over each pan of bread crumbs. 5. In each pan, layer 1 1 ⁄ 2 qts. of the pears over the top of the bread crumbs. Sprinkle with 1 ⁄ 2 tsp. of cinnamon. Top with 1 qt. of granola. 6. Bake for 75-90 minutes or until a knife inserted near the center comes out clean . 7. Let the bread pudding sit for 5 minutes before cutting each pan 6 rows by 4 rows. Serve warm. Photo, recipe & recipe analysis: Pacifi c Northwest Canned Pear Service, www.eatcannedpears.com/ foodservice Class is in session! Ready to learn some lessons in developing tasty, appealing baked goods? *Note: If serving as part of the reimbursable meal, adjust the serving size as necessary to meet current meal pattern requirements. 44 School Nutrıtıon • DECEMBER 2014
The Science of Baking
By Kelsey Casselbury
For those who enjoy it—and have a knack for it—cooking can be an art. For many dishes, recipes are simply guidelines open to liberal experimentation, adding an extra ingredient here and subtracting another over there. It can be unpredictable, resulting in a culinary masterpiece that often can’t be duplicated.
Baking, on the other hand, is exact. It’s rigid. If you stray significantly from the foundation of a baked good recipe, you’re more likely to finish with an inedible product than a tasty treat. Baking is a science—chemistry, to be specific. If you thought that graduation from high school or college meant the end of your lab work (understanding the difference in chemical reactions, etc.), think again!
All but those who have a passion for food science might question the purpose of this, School Nutrition’s special chemistry lesson. Think about it, though—how often have you been tempted to skip chilling the dough or left the mixer running on those muffins a few minutes too long? As with any other lesson, knowing and understanding the “why”—why you should or shouldn’t do something—leads to more informed choices and a better final product. If you’re willing to return to the lecture hall for just a few pages, you just might discover a fascinating venture into the world of chemistry that, in the end, might inspire you to return to—or build upon—a scratch baking program.
First, The Foundation
Although most recipes can be—and have been—adapted every which way to accommodate dietary concerns such as food allergies or intolerances, as well as personal preference, the vast majority of baking recipes contain at least a few foundational ingredients: flour, eggs, butter, sugar and salt. If you’re talking bread, add yeast to that list. Let’s examine how each of these plays a role in the chemistry of the final product.
FLOUR. All-purpose, whole-wheat, white whole-wheat, cake, pastry…what’s the difference in flour types? Does it really matter when a recipe calls for, say, self-rising flour, but you only have all-purpose on hand?
Flour types are categorized by how much protein a specific variety contains; the more protein, the more gluten that is created when the flour is mixed with moisture—a chemical reaction!—and the denser the final product. Therefore, a light and fluffy cake does best with cake flour, which contains just 6 to 8% protein, while bread flour has up to 15% protein to build that chewier texture. As you might expect, all-purpose flour serves as a one-size-fits-all ingredient with a medium protein content. It’s not always the ideal flour, but it can work in a pinch. The key purpose of flour is to form gluten when liquid hits it, so varieties such as corn, potato or pulse flours that don’t contain gluten can’t and won’t have the same effect.
Flour is one ingredient that’s very easy to measure improperly, which can drastically affect your baking. Because of its texture, flour settles and compacts as it sits. When you scoop it straight out of a bag in a measuring cup, you could be adding anywhere from 10 to 25% extra flour—which could leave your final product tough and dry. Instead, professional bakers measure out the flour in weight: ounces or grams. If your recipe only calls for volume measures, use a spoon to scoop the flour into the measuring cup and make sure it’s not packed.
YEAST. If baking is a science, then working with yeast is biology 101. After all, yeast is a living organism—a single-celled fungus, to be specific— sprung to life by the combination of warm water and sugar. Once reactivated, the yeast feeds on the sugar in the recipe and releases carbon dioxide, which very slowly puffs up the bread. As the dough rises, the yeast adds extra flavor to the bread; once the bread is in the oven, the heat kills the yeast and the rising process halts.
Yeast, like dough, comes in more than one form. Fresh yeast, also known as compressed cakes, is more often used by professional bakers (and might be what you use in your school kitchen). It needs to be proofed (dissolving into warm water and foaming up as it is activated) before using in a recipe and then refrigerated or frozen between baking sessions. Dry yeast, often called dehydrated granules, has a longer shelf life—though it deteriorates rapidly after being opened, which is why it often comes in single-serving packets more appropriate for at-home use. Dry yeast is separated into two subcategories: active dry yeast and rapid-rise yeast; as the name indicates, rapid-rise yeast requires less rising times than active dry yeast. It also doesn’t require advance proofing.
SUGAR. Of course, sugar is used to make a recipe taste sweeter, but its function goes beyond that. In bread, sugar activates yeast through fermentation; it also binds to water to delay gluten development and, in the end, creates optimum elasticity of the dough. In baked treats, sugar recrystallizes as water evaporates during baking, creating a crisp texture. In both cases, chemical reactions with the sugar cause browning on the exterior.
EGGS. The humble egg plays a number of essential roles in baking. It binds the baked good by becoming firm when cooked; it creates a shiny crust when beaten and brushed onto a pie or tart; its whipped whites help the cake to rise; and its creamy yolks offer a rich flavor and thickening agent to puddings or custards.
An oft-overlooked facet of egg usage is determining the proper size, as eggs come in medium, large, extra-large and jumbo varieties. Recipes typically default to large eggs, each of which provides about 3.25 tablespoons of egg.If you choose medium or jumbo eggs, it throws off the proportions of the recipe, which can have messy results.
BUTTER/OIL/SHORTENING. Some recipes might call for shortening or oil in place of butter, and each form of fat provides a slightly different end result. However, this very important, often-vilified macronutrient has a number of functions: to provide flavor (in spades!), to tenderize, to enable browning and to help move heat through the product as it bakes.
Butter is typically the top fat option because, frankly, its flavor is best in baked goods. “The type of fat that is used can affect not only the flavor but the texture,” says Katie Mosman, who’s behind the science-based baking website, ThePerfectBrownie. com. “Butter makes brownies softer, while vegetable oil makes them chewier.”
Shortening is prized in commercial production because it’s less expensive than butter, its emulsifiers help batters come together more quickly and it doesn’t require refrigeration. As for oils, they’re more often used in cooking, rather than baking. But an oil can create a moist baked good due to its liquid state. However, it can’t trap air bubbles, so oil doesn’t work for creaming or help with leavening.
SALT. If you’ve ever baked something that seemed dull in flavor, you can blame a lack of salt. While enhancing the flavors of other ingredients is a primary responsibility of salt, this is not its only goal. Salt strengthens gluten and contributes to the browning of bread; without it, yeast will rise faster and air pockets will be larger. Salt also strengthens whipped egg whites, helping them hold volume.
Of course, your baked good recipe could call for any number of other ingredients! Components such as baking soda and powder, cream of tartar, brown sugar and various types of dairy (from buttermilk to sour cream) can affect your baking. In Summer 2015, School Nutrition will do a more intensive review of “foundation” ingredients in various types of cooking, including baking.
When it comes to the science of baking, seemingly simple steps such as measuring the dry ingredients (as with flour, usually better done by weight using a scale rather than volume using measuring cups) and the order in which you combine ingredients can make a significant difference. “Another easy mistake when baking is to forget the method or order of combining [ingredients],” Mosman says. “If your recipe says to gently fold something into a batter, then there’s a reason. . . . The method and the order of combining ingredients will almost always have an effect on the final texture of your baked goods.” The moral of the story: Each ingredient you use and every step you take in preparing the batter or dough works scientifically to produce the ideal final product.
It’s not just your ingredients that can affect the chemistry of your baked goods—the fickle fancy of Mother Nature plays a role, too, meaning a third science has entered the mix: meteorology. Nutrition Services Coordinator Todd Blanscett works in the Davis School District, Syracuse, Utah, cook-chill facility. He notes that when a storm rolls through his part of the state, the barometric pressure outside shifts, and that affects what’s going on in the mixer and oven. “If a storm is coming in and you have low pressure and moisture, it will affect dough,” he notes, explaining that this weather condition can result in dough that ranges from too sticky to too dry. To compensate, the staff needs to adjust the moisture in the recipe by adding or subtracting water and changing the cooking time. Complications occur at high elevations, too, where the air pressure is lower.
The volume of baked goods that an operation must produce poses challenges, too, says Deborah Taylor, SNS, associate director, Oklahoma City (Okla.) Public Schools. Remember what we learned about the effect of gluten in bread? It creates a dense product. When you’re making quick breads, such as biscuits, cornbread or muffins, you want the finished product to be light and fluffy. “Anytime you’re mixing a quick bread, you don’t want to develop the gluten,” she advises. This means barely mixing the wet and dry ingredients together so gluten has less ability to form. “That’s a challenge,” Taylor admits. “It’s one thing when you’re doing it for 12 muffins at home, but when you’re doing it for 500, not over-mixing is a challenge. It’s a science! When you overdo it, you get tunnels that go from the bottom of your muffin up to the top. Then the muffins rise in the middle and are pointed instead of pretty and rounded.”
The Perks and Pitfalls of a Healthier Recipe
As you might expect, recipe reformulation to meet federal nutrition standards has meant some trial and error. One of the biggest challenges has been meeting whole-grain standards. And it’s not just because the denser dough can burn out the motors of commercial-grade mixers, as happened to Taylor in Oklahoma City. Nor is it only because kids tend to side-eye the darker-colored goods with suspicion, as Davis’ Blanscett reports.
No, it’s also two itty-bitty components of a whole grain—the bran and germ, which are stripped from refined grans— that can wreak havoc on unmodified recipes. These whole-grain elements can’t absorb water nor do they rise the way a refined grain can. This leads to a dense, dry, crumbly product if you take a recipe written for white flour and simply substitute a whole-wheat variety. A reformulated recipe must incorporate significantly more water, require less kneading time and allow for more rising time.
Removing salt, as dictated by regulations requiring less sodium, can cause problems, too. Without it, yeast breads rise more quickly, giving gluten less time to develop, and the crumb and crust of many breads won’t be ideal. In quick breads and other baked goods, your finished product might taste like it’s missing something. “The more salt you take out, to me, the bread is going to taste like cardboard,” asserts Blanscett.
Working with these complex scientific formulas requires significant training— not a problem for someone like Blanscett, who attended the American Institute of Baking. But not all school nutrition operations can boast the luxury of having trained bakers on the team. Outside help may be necessary. “There are companies . . . . [that have mixes] to make muffin squares, cinnamon swirls” and other popular baked goods, Taylor reveals. “Then [the manufacturers] have done all the work” of figuring out how to make the recipe meet regulations while still appeal to students.
Our return to the classroom has ended— for now. But culinary experiments are ongoing. As nutrition regulations continue to evolve, chances are school nutrition professionals will continue to adapt and reformulate recipes to better suit their needs. Keep that chemistry textbook handy—you never know when you might need to go back to the basics of science.
BONUS WEB CONTENT
Learn more about the effects of various pantry staples on baked goods, using pulse flours in baking, how common baking conundrums can be solved with a little scientific know-how and more. Visit www.schoolnutrition.org/snmagazinebonuscontent.
Kelsey Casselbury is managing editor of SN.
TO YOUR CREDIT: For CEUs toward an SNA certificate, complete the “To Your Credit” test on page 42.
Recipes obtained from outside sources and published in School Nutrition have not been tested by the magazine or SNA in a school foodservice setting, except for certain “Kitchen Wisdom” selections, which are evaluated by a volunteer pool of operators. When available, nutrient analyses are provided by the recipe source. Required ingredients, preparation steps and nutrient content make some recipes more appropriate for catering applications or adult meals. Readers are encouraged to test recipes and calculate their own nutrition analyses and meal patterns before adding a recipe to school menus. In addition, SN recognizes that individual schools use varying documentation methods and preparation steps to comply with HACCP principles; we encourage you to add your own HACCP steps to these recipes.
Class is in session! Ready to learn some lessons in developing tasty, appealing baked goods?
BREAKFAST BREAD PUDDING
YIELD: 48 servings
PER SERVING: 282 cal., 10 g pro., 48 g carb., 5 g fiber, 7 g fat, 2 g sat. fat, 78 mg chol., 298 mg sod.
Pan release spray—as needed
Dry bread cubes or crumbs—2 gals.
Milk, lowfat (2%)—1 gal.
Vanilla extract—2 Tbsps.
Pears, diced, canned—3 qts.
1. Drain the pears. Set aside.
2. Heat the oven to 350°F.
3. Pour 1 gal. of the bread crumbs or cubes into each of two spray-coated 12x20x2-in. pans. Set aside.
4. In a bowl, mix the milk, eggs, brown sugar, vanilla extract and salt; pour equal amounts of the mixture over each pan of bread crumbs.
5. In each pan, layer 1½qts. of the pears over the top of the bread crumbs. Sprinkle with ½ tsp. of cinnamon. Top with 1 qt. of granola.
6. Bake for 75-90 minutes or until a knife inserted near the center comes out clean.
7. Let the bread pudding sit for 5 minutes before cutting each pan 6 rows by 4 rows. Serve warm.
Photo, recipe & recipe analysis: Pacific Northwest Canned Pear Service, www.eatcannedpears.com/foodservice
*Note: If serving as part of the reimbursable meal, adjust the serving size as necessary to meet current meal pattern requirements.
WHOLE-WHEAT PIZZA DOUGH
YIELD: 50 servings
PER SERVING: 140 cal., 4 g pro., 27 g carb., 3 g fiber, 2 g fat, 0.5 g sat. fat, 0 mg chol., 221 mg sod., 2 mg iron, 9 mg ca.
Water, warm (not hot)—1 qt., ¼ cup
Yeast, dry—¾ oz.
Olive oil—⅓ cup
Flour, whole-wheat—2 lbs. or 1 qt., 3½ cups
Flour, all-purpose, enriched—1 lb., 8 ozs. or 1 qt., 1½ cups
Salt—2 Tbsps., 1 tsp.
Cooking spray—as needed
1. Stir together the water and yeast in a large mixing bowl until the yeast is dissolved. Add the honey; let stand for 5 minutes.
2. Add the olive oil, whole-wheat flour and all-purpose flour to the yeast mixture. Combine, then add the salt.
3. Using a dough hook on a standing mixer, knead the dough on the lowest speed for 10 minutes. Watch the dough carefully in the first few minutes to make sure that it comes together in a ball and is soft, but not too sticky. It should stick only to the very bottom of the mixing bowl, while pulling away from the sides. If the dough is very sticky, then add more flour, a cup at a time, until it’s the right consistency.
4. Oil a large bowl. Transfer the dough to this bowl. Cover loosely with a large plastic bag and let rise until the dough is doubled in bulk, about 1 hour. (Press your finger into the dough—if it leaves an imprint, the dough is ready.)
5. Transfer the dough to a floured surface. Divide the dough into three balls: two 2-lb.,6-oz. balls and one 1-lb., 3-oz. ball. Place these on a floured surface and cover with the plastic bag. Let the dough balls rise for 30 minutes. (Again, press your finger into the dough—if it leaves an imprint, the dough is ready.)
6. Preheat a convection oven to 450°F or a conventional oven to 475°F. Coat two full sheet pans and one half sheet pan with cooking spray. Sprinkle the surface with the cornmeal.
7. Roll and stretch each ball of pizza dough into a rectangle that fills the dimension of the prepared sheet pans. It might be a bit thin on the edges, but it will still rise. Top the dough with pizza ingredients as desired.
8. Bake in a convection oven at 450ºF or conventional oven at 475ºF until the crust is light brown, 15-18 minutes. Cut each full sheet pan into 20 (4x5) pieces and the half sheet pan into 10 (2x5) pieces.
Recipe & recipe analysis: New School Cuisine: Nutritious and Seasonal Recipes for School Cooks by School Cooks, http:// tinyurl.com/newschoolcuisine
*Note: According to the recipe source, one serving provides 1.75 ozs. whole grain-rich grain.
KITCHEN WISDOM SAYS . . .
• This is a good-tasting recipe, but it does have a whole-wheat after-taste.
• The honey seems to be added to this recipe to increase yeast growth to compensate for the denseness of the whole-wheat flour. However, it seems like including the honey might create a more yeasty flavor profile, which the students may not like. To reduce the yeasty flavor profile, try omitting the honey and adding baking powder and baking soda.
• This dough might be better suited in a lower-volume item like calzones, where people don’t have as many preconceptions about how a product should taste, like they do with pizza.
YIELD: 48 servings
PER SERVING: 329 cal., 14 g pro., 61 g carb., 4 g fiber, 4 g fat, 0.5 g sat. fat, 27 mg chol., 76 mg sod., 1 mg iron, 174 mg ca.
Pan release spray—as needed
Oats, quick-cooking—48 ozs. or 15 cups
Greek yogurt, vanilla, fat-free—228 ozs. or 25½cups
Brown sugar—24 ozs. or 3 cups
Eggs, liquid*—11 ozs. or 1⅓cups
Cornstarch—4.6 ozs. or¾ cup
Sugar, granulated—24 ozs. or 3 cups
Blueberries, individually quick frozen*—192 ozs. or 24 cups
1. Coat two 11x18x2-in. cake pans with the pan release spray.
2. In a bowl, mix the uncooked oats, 36 ozs. or 4½cups of the Greek yogurt and all of the brown sugar. Reserve the remaining 192 ozs. or 21 cups of the Greek yogurt.
3. Press out the oat mixture evenly in the bottoms of the two cake pans.
4. In a large bowl, whisk the eggs and cornstarch.
5. Add the remaining Greek yogurt and granulated sugar; stir until blended. Set aside.
6. Toss half of the frozen blueberries in the flour until they are lightly coated; discard the excess flour. (Tossing the blueberries in the flour reduces bleeding during the baking process.) Reserve the other half of the blueberries.
7. Gently fold the blueberries into the yogurt mixture; pour even amounts over the crusts in the two pans.
8. Bake at 325°F for 1 hour and 30 minutes in a conventional oven or 300°F for 1 hour and 10 minutes in a convection oven. The edges should be slightly brown, while the middle will not be set.
9. Remove the pans from the oven and cover with foil, being sure to fully seal the edge of the foil around the pans. (This will prevent hot air from entering, which can lead to excess browning.) Bake for another 30 minutes.
10. Cool at room temperature for 1 hour. Refrigerate for at least 3 hours before cutting.
11. To serve: Cut 48 3¾ x 4½-in. pieces. Garnish each piece with ¼ cup of blueberries.
Photo, recipe & recipe analysis: National Dairy Council, www.nationaldairycouncil.org
*Notes: According to the recipe source, one serving provides 1 dairy meat/meat alternate, 1 grain and ½cup fruit. Whole eggs may be used in place of liquid eggs; six whole eggs=1⅓cups of liquid eggs. Any type of individually-quick-frozen berries, mixed berries or cherries can be used in place of blueberries. A fruit sauce can be used in place of plain fruit as a topping for this dish.
WHOLE-GRAIN CINNAMON ROLLS
YIELD: ~75 3-oz. servings
PER SERVING: 212 cal., 4 g pro., 37 g carb., 2 g fiber, 6 g fat, 3 g sat. fat, 31 mg chol., 80 mg sod., 2 mg iron, 39 mg ca.
Milk, 1%—1 qt.
Yeast, dry, active—5 Tbsps.
Butter, unsalted—1 lb.
Lemon juice—2 Tbsps.
Eggs, whole, fresh—8 medium
Egg whites—1 cup
Flour, all-purpose, enriched, white— 2 qts., ½cup
Flour, whole-wheat—1 qt., 1¾ cups
Flour, pastry, whole-wheat—2 qts., ½cup
Sugar, brown—1½cups (packed)
Cinnamon, ground—¼ cup
Nutmeg, ground—1 tsp.
Raisins, seedless—1 qt., 1 cup (packed)
1. Ensure that the milk and the water are warm (around 100°F). In a bowl, combine the liquids together and add the yeast. Mix until the yeast dissolves. Let the mixture rest for 5 minutes.
2. Add the butter, honey, salt, lemon juice, eggs and egg whites.
3. Add all three flour types slowly, one at a time, while stirring until the dough forms. Knead the dough for 8 minutes, then let it rise for 1 hour in a covered container.
4. Mix the brown sugar, cinnamon, nutmeg and raisins for the filling. Set aside.
5. After the dough has risen, punch it down and roll into four to five 16x12-in. segments.
6. Spread the filling across the entire tops of each dough segment, pressing it into the dough. Roll up each dough segment into a long “log,” using the longer 16-in. side of each segment.
7. Slice the logs into 16-20 1-in. servings. Place each cinnamon roll on greased sheet trays and let rise for 45 minutes.
8. Preheat the oven to 350°F and bake for 20 minutes.
Photo, recipe & recipe analysis: Solvang (Calif.) School District Foodservice Department, www.solvangschool.org/menus-info
KITCHEN WISDOM SAYS . . .
• This is a very yummy recipe, but timeconsuming. Depending on your labor, you may not be able to serve this as a freshly made cinnamon roll for sameday breakfast because of time. You may need to prepare the recipe the day before, which might reduce some of the wonderful, freshly made taste.
• Alternately, you could pre-make the dough and freeze it in the cooler overnight and then bake the cinnamon rolls right before serving.
• Consider letting the dough rise overnight (while covered) in the refrigerator. But before placing it in the refrigerator, let it rise a little bit.
MAPLE APPLE FRENCH TOAST BAKE
YIELD: 48 servings
PER SERVING: 220 cal., 12 g pro., 28 g carb., 3 g fiber, 7 g fat, 2 g sat. fat, 195 mg chol., 314 mg sod., 2 mg iron, 115 mg ca.
Pan release spray—as needed
Bread, whole-wheat*—4 lbs.
Milk, lowfat (1%)—1 qt., 1 cup
Maple syrup or brown sugar—1½cups, divided
Cinnamon, ground—4 tsps.
Nutmeg, ground—2 tsps.
1. Coat two 2-in. full steamtable pans with the pan release spray.
2. Core the apples and cut each into eight wedges.
3. Break the bread into 1-in. cubes.
4. Lightly beat the eggs in a large bowl. Add the milk, 1 cup of the maple syrup (or substitute with 1 cup of brown sugar per Notes below). Reserve the remainder. Add the cinnamon, nutmeg and salt; whisk to combine. Stir in the apple slices until well coated. Fold the bread cubes into the mixture.
5. Divide the French toast mixture evenly between the two prepared pans. Lightly coat sheets of parchment paper with the pan-release spray and place on top of the French toast. Cover the steamtable pans with foil. Refrigerate 6-8 hours or overnight.
6. Before baking, let the French toast stand at room temperature for 30 minutes. Preheat a convection oven to 325°F or conventional oven to 350°F.
7. When baking, leave both the parchment paper and foil. Bake for 30 minutes. Remove the foil and parchment and rotate the pans to the other end. If using brown sugar, sprinkle each pan with ¼ cup. If using maple syrup, drizzle each pan with ¼ cup after baking.
8. Bake again, uncovered, until recipe is set on top and the internal temperature reaches 165°F, approximately 20 minutes more. Let the French toast stand for 10 minutes. Cut each steamtable pan into 24 pieces.
Recipe & recipe analysis: New School Cuisine: Nutritious and Seasonal Recipes for School Cooks by School Cooks, http://tinyurl.com/newschoolcuisine
*Notes: According to the recipe source, one serving provides 1.25 ozs. equivalent grain/bread, 2 ozs. equivalent meat/meat alternate and 1⁄8 cup fruit. Whole-wheat bread can be substituted with any whole-grain variety. Whole eggs can be replaced with 1 gal. liquid eggs. Maple syrup can be replaced with the same amount of brown sugar. Consider cubing leftover bread (or even English muffins) and freeze. Make the recipe once you have collected 1 gal. of the leftover bread. Slightly frozen bread is easier to cube. You can use frozen commodity apples (thaw before adding to the recipe) or one #10 can of prepared apple filling. You can add 2 lbs. of reduced-fat cream cheese, cut into½-in. cubes; fold it in with the bread in Step 4. Stir in 1½qts. of raisins, and the recipe will credit for an additional ¼ cup fruit per serving.
Read the full article at http://mydigimag.rrd.com/article/The+Science+of+Baking/1867501/235436/article.html.